What Nationality Was Antiochus Epiphanes?

Having established a magnificent system of vassal states in the East, Antiochus now adopted the ancient Achaemenid title of “great king,” and the Greeks, comparing him to Alexander the Great, surnamed him also “the Great.”

Who defeated Antiochus the Great?

His forces easily gained coastal Phoenicia, Tyre, and Ptolemais, but Antiochus faltered at the fortress of Dora in northern Palestine. This gave Egypt a chance to reorganize its army, and on June 22, 217, Antiochus was defeated in Gaza by Ptolemy IV Philopater.

What did the Romans rename Judea to?

After the defeat of Bar Kokhba (132–135 CE) the Roman Emperor Hadrian was determined to wipe out the identity of Israel-Judah-Judea, and renamed it Syria Palaestina.

What does Antiochus mean in Greek?

From the Greek name Ἀντίοχος (Antiochos), derived from Greek ἀντί (anti) meaning “against, compared to, like” and ὀχή (oche) meaning “support”. This was the name of several rulers of the Seleucid Empire.

How long did the Seleucid empire last?

The Seleucid Empire (323–64 B.C.)

Who were the Seleucids and Ptolemies?

During the century of Ptolemaic rule over Judah/Palestine and Phoenicia, the Seleucids (ruling from Antioch/Syria), ruling the eastern provinces of the erstwhile Achaemenid Empire, exert constant pressure on the Ptolemies. Their immediate aim is the southern Levant (esp.

Where is the Seleucid Empire located today?

At the Seleucid Empire’s height, it had consisted of territory that had covered Anatolia, Persia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and what are now Kuwait, Afghanistan, and parts of Turkmenistan. The Seleucid Empire was a major center of Hellenistic culture.

What did Antiochus Epiphanes do to the temple in Jerusalem?

Antiochus IV (Epiphanes), the king of Syria, captured Jerusalem in 167 BC and desecrated the Temple by offering the sacrifice of a pig on an altar to Zeus (the Abomination of Desolation).

What language was the first Maccabees written?

1 Maccabees, originally written in Hebrew and surviving only in a Greek translation, relates the history of the Maccabees from 175 BCE until 134 BCE.

What is the golden menorah?

The menorah (/məˈnɔːrə/; Hebrew: מְנוֹרָה‎ Hebrew pronunciation: ) is described in the Bible as the seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the tabernacle set up by Moses in the wilderness and later in the Temple in Jerusalem.

What caused the fall of the Seleucid Empire?

In this period it was riven by dynastic disputes, secessions and rebellions, the religiously-inspired insurrection of the Jewish Maccabees, civil war and external invasion from Egypt in the West and the Parthians in the East.

What happened to the Seleucids?

The Seleucid Empire began to crumble after 100 BCE and was finally toppled by Rome through the efforts of its general Pompey the Great (l. c. 106-48 BCE) in 63 BCE.

Who did the Seleucids fight?

The Seleucid War (192–188 BC), also known as the War of Antiochos or the Syrian War, was a military conflict between two coalitions led by the Roman Republic and the Seleucid Empire. The fighting took place in modern day southern Greece, the Aegean Sea and Asia Minor.

What does the name Epiphanes mean?

Epiphanes (Greek: Ἐπιφανής), meaning “God Manifest” or “the Glorious/Illustrious”, is an ancient Greek epithet borne by several Hellenistic rulers: Antiochus IV Epiphanes (c. 215–164 BC), ruler of the Seleucid Empire.

Did Israel exist in ancient times?

Israel had clearly emerged in the first half of the 9th century BCE, this is attested when the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III names “Ahab the Israelite” among his enemies at the battle of Qarqar (853 BCE).

Is Judea in Palestine?

Judaea, also spelled Judea, or Judah, Hebrew Yehudaḥ, the southernmost of the three traditional divisions of ancient Palestine; the other two were Galilee in the north and Samaria in the centre.


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